Close Protection Training

12 Days Course

All Time Security close protection qualification has been developed to meet the requirements of the Security Industry Authority (SIA). It is based on the relevant SIA Specifications for Learning and Qualifications and provides the learner with the necessary knowledge and understanding to apply for an SIA licence and work as a close protection operative within the private security industry. We incorporate skills learnt by our trainers by being in the industry and simply doing the job for over 24 years. There experience and knowledge will give you a great insight to this industry.

Who can attend this course?

This qualification is approved for delivery to the age range 18+ due to the requirements of an SIA licence. You do not have to be ex military to participate in this course. We do not teach fire arms on this course as our trainers believe that you will not generally utilise this knowledge unless working in certain countries and to keep our course cost affordable the skills learnt below are far more imperative to the learner.  

Entry Requirements

It is advised that learners have a minimum of Level 2 in literacy and numeracy or equivalent. When applying for a CP licence, learners will be required to produce evidence that they have attained a recognised first aid award. Learners should present their valid first aid certificate to their training provider before starting training. If they do not have a recognised first aid award, they will need to get one in order to get a licence. This is in addition to the minimum 138 hours knowledge and practical skills training. First aid awards recognised by the SIA are: and if not all ready held can be gained at our training centre prior to attending the close protection course.

Level 3 Award in First Aid at Work (QCF)

Level 3 Award in First Aid Response

First Person on Scene (FPOS) Intermediate Award - 30 hours (Edexcel / IHCD)

Assessment Guidance

This qualification is assessed in two parts. Part one is a 60 question, 2 hour multiple-choice examination. Learners must achieve 42 out of 60 to achieve a pass in this section of the assessment.

Part two is assessed by a portfolio of evidence.

 What you will learn

 Unit Content

: Understand the legislation that is relevant to people working in the close protection industry

• The differences between civil, common and criminal law

• Criminal law

· to deter and punish prosecutions brought by the Crown Prosecution Service fine community sentence, or imprisonment proven beyond reasonable doubt

· examples:

· dishonesty offences – theft, robbery, burglary

· violence offences - assault: common assault & battery,

  Actual Bodily Harm (ABH), Grievous Bodily Harm (GBH), GBH

  with intent

· other offences – possession and use of firearms, offensive

  weapons, bladed articles, drugs, public disorder (s.3, 4, 4A &

 Public Order Act 1986)

• Civil law

· to right a wrong· prosecution brought by individuals or organisations compensation

· proven on balance of probabilities examples:

• negligence

• breach of contract

o powers of arrest for offenders (s.24/24A Police and Criminal Evidence Act, 1984)

o definition of indictable offences:

• triable at Crown court or ‘either way’


o theft

o burglary, robbery

o criminal damage

o GBH/wounding with intent/GBH/ABH

• The main aims of the Private Security Industry Act

• the introduction of the SIA

• to regulate the private security industry effectively

• to raise standards and recognise quality service

The main functions of the Security Industry Authority (SIA) and other key bodies within the private security industry

• the Security Industry Authority (SIA)

· to regulate the private security industry effectively through licensing

· develop training standards for licence-linked qualifications

· to set, raise and maintain national standards e.g. through the Approved

 Contractor Scheme

• Other bodies

· Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO)

· British Security Industry Association

· British Standards Institute(BSI)

· Home Office

· SIA Close Protection forum

· Skills for Security

Aspects of human rights legislation that are relevant to the private security industry

• Human Rights Act 1998 – basic principles

• Interference must be proportionate, legal, accountable and necessary

• Connection to the European Convention on Human Rights

· Relevant articles

• 2 – Right to Life

• 5- Right to Liberty and Security

• 6 – Right to a Fair Trial

• 8 – Right to Privacy

• 10 – Freedom of Expression

• 11 – Freedom of Assembly

• 14 – Prohibition of Discrimination

• The data protection principles outlined in data protection legislation

• the eight principles of the Data Protection Act 1998

• Types of discrimination that can occur in the workplace:

• race

• age

• religion

• sex

• disability

• sexual orientation

• direct or indirect

• How equal opportunities legislation applies in the workplace:

• relevant legislation e.g.·

 Equality Act 2010

• protected characteristics

 • prohibited types of conduct

• equal pay

• promotion

• reasonable adjustments

• exceptions for genuine requirements of role

 Understand the roles and responsibilities of the Close Protection Operative

• The purpose of close protection:

• protection of the principal

• protection of principal’s life, family, property

• The attributes required of a close protection operative:

• professionalism

• integrity

• communication skills

• calm under pressure

• discretion

• The different roles and responsibilities within a close protection team:

• driver

• medic

• personal protection officer

• residential security team

• security advance party

• The difference between a client and a principal:

• client can be the principal

• client – pays for the service

• principal – the individual who requires protection

• The different types of principal in the close protection environment:

• they will come from a wide range of backgrounds

• business people

• celebrities

• foreign dignitaries

• The importance of personal security within a close protection environment:

• awareness of threats to self

• threats to principal if close protection operative is injured

• compliance with Health and Safety legislation

• responsible for own personal safety

• The need for situational awareness within different working environments:

• changes in weather

• changes in crowd size/mood

• changes to venue - temporary closure of areas and doors

• to be able to respond appropriately and dynamically

• The need for close protection training and continuous professional development (CPD):

• maintaining industry knowledge

• keep skills up to date

• appropriate CPD activities (e.g. training events, seminars, reviewing industry information, checking legislative changes, monitoring recommended good practice)

 Know the importance of threat assessment and risk management

• Carry out a threat and risk assessment

• The purpose of threat and risk assessments:

o to identify the level of risk and threat

o to reduce risk level

o to assist with planning and preparation

• Threat and risk assessment techniques :

o principal threat profiling (7 Ps)

• people

• places

• personality

• prejudices

• personal history

• political/religious views

• private lifestyle

o identifying probability and potential impact

o balance of protection vs. lifestyle

o using a systematic approach

o review regularly

• The main threats to a principal within the close protection :

o unwanted attention/intrusion into privacy

o injury risk

o loss of or damage to principal’s property

o public image

o loss of sensitive/confidential information

How threat assessment and risk management can vary when a principal is arriving at or leaving a destination:

o different types of location

• hotel

• airport

• venue

• consideration of alternative means of access or egress

• recognition of vulnerabilities at time of entry or exit

• The importance of dynamic assessment, response and contingency plan:

o dynamic assessment

o response

• take action

• avoid

• seek help

o contingency plans

• The threat categories:

o imminent

o possible

o probable

How close protection operatives within the UK gather operational intelligence:

o liaison with police

o liaison with embassies

o open source intelligence - media research

o insurance company information and assessments

 Know surveillance techniques

Demonstrate surveillance techniques

• The types of people or organisations who might be carrying out surveillance on a principal:

o criminals

o media

o extremist groups

o fans

o business competitors

o political opponents

o agents of foreign governments

Surveillance techniques:

o covert vs. overt techniques

o counter-surveillance measures (to prevent surveillance)

o anti-surveillance drills (to detect surveillance)

o detect static surveillance

• recognise vehicles, individuals

• suspicious behaviour

o detect and disrupt surveillance on foot

• vary speed and direction

• use of counter-surveillance team

• be alert of sightings of the same individual

o detect and disrupt surveillance in a vehicle

• changing lanes

• varying speed

• be alert for sightings of the same vehicle

• Equipment used to assist in surveillance:

o binoculars (day and night vision)

o cameras (stills and video)

o audio recording equipment


o tracking devices

• The limitations and capabilities of a range of equipment used to assist in surveillance

o affect of relevant legislation on use of equipment: e.g. Regulatory Powers legislation

o recording equipment

o transmitting equipment

o tracking equipment

o limitations due to:

• power supply

• size

• sensitivity/specification

• installation/available locations

• service/maintenance

• retrieval of material (e.g. recorded footage)

 Understand venue security operations

• Produce a plan for venue security

• Venue related security operations

o concept of layers of protection

o embus and debus

o vulnerable areas

o medical emergency

o evacuation procedures

• The importance of liaison with venue security

o the role of the security advance party

o who to share information with

o extent of information sharing (on “need to know” basis)

o responsibilities of venue security staff

Factors that influence operational plans at various venues

o size and layout

o embus and debus arrangements

o location of safe rooms

o vulnerable areas

The use of communication equipment and other technology used in venue-based close protection operations

o communicate with venue security, e.g. radio

o communicate with own team e.g. phones

o use of pro-words

o use of phonetic alphabet

o use of phonetic pronunciation of numbers

o security of different communication methods (including encryption, standard 

radios, mobile phones and personal communication)

• Contingencies used in venue-based close protection operations:

o contingency i.e. being prepared for all situations

o short notice changes

o evacuation procedures

o use of a safe room

o alternative routes, entrances and exits

o communication back up arrangements

• Counter-measures used in venue-based close protection operations:

o what is a counter-measure i.e. actions to pre-empt situations

o use of security advance party

o security checks; patrolling; CCTV and alarms; access control; personal/vehicle searches

Know how to design and demonstrate operational planning

• Design and implement an operational plan

• Conduct a team briefing

• The purpose of operational planning:

o gather information

o assess and manage threats

o allocate resources appropriately

o preparing a briefing for the operational team

• How threat and risk assessments affect operational planning

o threat vs. protection required

o planning to deal with anticipated situations/contingencies

o use of resources appropriately

• The importance of briefing and de-briefing

o who needs to be briefed

• the principal

• the team

o ensure the team understand instructions and role and responsibilities

o de-briefing

• lessons learned

• improvements to be made

• The importance of time and resource management

o utilising correct resources for the operation

o taking budget into account

o managing timings to minimise risks

• Agencies that may need to be contacted in the course of operational planning

o police

o emergency services

o embassies

o purpose of liaison (establishing mutual roles and responsibilities, information

Sharing, coordination of activity, etc)

 Know the importance of interpersonal skills

• Demonstrate effective negotiation skills

• Interpersonal skills that is required of a close protection operative:

o communication skills

o empathy

o negotiation skills

o problem solving

o team working

• The importance of effective communication within the close protection environment:

o communication with the principal, family, colleagues

o maintaining security

o maintaining confidentiality

o checking understanding

o reporting, (accurate, clear, contains all relevant information)

• The need for clear decision making and direction;

o when there is a threat or incident

o taking control of situations

o reducing risk by prompt and decisive action

• The importance of etiquette and protocol when dealing with principals:

o maintain professionalism

o adapt appropriately to situations

o dress appropriately to situations

o behaving in a manner consistent with maintaining the reputation of the principal

: Know the importance of teamwork

• Demonstrate team working skills

• Attributes and skills of an effective close protection team:

o balance of skills

o communication skills

o support across the team

o able to deal with disagreements

o effective supervision and leadership (including challenge of inappropriate behaviour)

• The importance of personal and team preparation:

o ensuring plans are prepared and reviewed

o all documentation is ready, e.g. passports

o check equipment is working correctly

• Why Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are important for effective teamwork:

o ensures individual responsibilities are clear

o sets out consistent ways of dealing with anticipated situations

o understand the potential implications of errors in Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

Know the importance of reconnaissance

• Conduct a reconnaissance

o The purpose of reconnaissance:

• identify any potential dangers and threats

• identify access and egress points and arrangements

• identify emergency exits and other arrangements

• confirm the route and timings

• identify potential vulnerabilities and difficulties on the route

• view the route, venues, etc. at time of day and in other conditions likely to be encountered at time of task

• Factors to be considered when conducting a reconnaissance:

o communication

o emergency services and support availability

o local factors

o resources

o routes and timings (including alternatives if appropriate)

• The role of the Security Advance Party (SAP):

o route reconnaissance

o venue checks

o monitoring / checking of venue security and other arrangements

o liaison with relevant people at venue (management, security, etc.)

• The difference between covert and overt reconnaissance:

o covert reconnaissance

o overt reconnaissance

o when to use covert or overt reconnaissance (i.e. based on threat and risk

Assessment, nature of visit / venue, general information, etc.)

 Know how to conduct close protection foot drills

• Demonstrate close protection foot formations

• Demonstrate body protection of a principal

• Demonstrate foot evacuation of a principal

• Individual roles within a close protection team on foot:

o team leader

o personal escort section

o medic (including possession of first-aid equipment)

o individual team members to be first-aid trained

• The responsibilities of a close protection operative on foot:

o deterrent

o provide cover and protection to the principal

o identify and respond to threats

o maintain principal’s image

• The need to adopt a flexible approach on foot:

o respond to changes in circumstances or threats

o correct position or formation (including box, vee, diamond, triangle, wedge, line,

Open or closed variants and two-person / one-person formations)

• The range of communication used on foot:

o with the principal (in relation to the planned tactics, as situations develop and change,etc.)

o within the team

o by radio or mobile phone

o hand signals

o verbal commands

 Know the importance of planning and selecting routes

• Interpret information from maps

• Produce primary and secondary route plans

• The need for route selection and contingency planning:

o having a primary and secondary route planned

o ensure route is safe and can be used efficiently for required journey

o to minimise threat and risk to principal

o types of contingencies:

_ Medical emergency

_ Attack

_ Road closures, traffic delays & other factors beyond control

_ Alternative route

_ Loss of communication

• The factors that need to be considered when carrying out route selection:

o date, time, to, from, time allowed

o risk assessment and identification of vulnerabilities

o avoiding routine and predictable journey patterns

o traffic conditions, choke points and other potential sources of delay

o possible contingencies and available options

o availability of safe havens and other safe locations for use in emergency

o access to back up

o access to reliable communications throughout the route

• The range of technological tools used in route planning:

o satellite navigation systems (including understanding quality, limitations and

date of different systems)

o on-line mapping and route planning systems

o making proper use of on-line mapping (identifying correct maps, knowledge of

symbols used, understanding of different scales, etc.)

o need to make contingency arrangements in case of failure of technological

systems (carrying of printed maps, route plans, etc.)

o preparing electronic (and printed) route cards showing embus and debus points,

main features of route, emergency facilities, vulnerable points, etc.

 Know vehicle movement tactics and operations

• Carry out embus and debus drills

• Carry out convoy drills

• Carry out anti-ambush drills

• Carry out a basic evacuation procedure with a vehicle

• The safety and security checks to be taken to ensure vehicle security before, during and

after journeys:

o roadworthiness of vehicles: safety features (tyres, brakes, lights, etc.) and

maintenance features (fluid levels, etc.)

o functioning of safety equipment whilst vehicle in use: seatbelts, locking systems,etc

o frequency of checks:

_ routine daily checks

_ more extensive periodic checks)

o potential threats

o equipment checks

• The factors involved in choosing a vehicle:

o suitable for the operation/terrain/proposed use

o preference of the principal

o level of protection provided

• The need for alternative transport plans:

o mechanical problem with the vehicle

o environmental changes: adverse weather conditions, etc.

o security is compromised

o driver illness or injury

• Protocol for vehicle use:

o roles of the personal protection officer (PPO) and seating location in vehicles

o seating arrangements for principal and escort (including single person, two

person and multiple person escorts)

o single and multiple vehicle convoy arrangements

o routine and emergency driving tactics (including positioning, use of speed,

evasion tactics, escape to safe havens, etc.)

o embus/debus arrangements

o orthodox/unorthodox embus/debus drills

o appropriate parking of vehicles at venues (e.g. ready for use / prompt departure

in an emergency situation)

o maintaining the security of parked vehicles at venues, etc.

• How road traffic legislation affects the use of vehicles by close protection operatives:

o adhering to legal limits re drink-driving

o compliance with road traffic law: speed, manner of driving, compliance with

signage, parking restrictions, etc.

o requirements of Road Traffic Act 1988 in relation to road traffic accidents: i.e. to

stop, exchange details, report to police as necessary, etc.

o relevant documentation

o dealing with involvement in road traffic collisions

• The variety of vehicle and driving arrangements which impact on the role of the close

protection operative and team:

o number of cars to be used

o vehicle type

o seating arrangements in one, two and multiple person escort situations

o lone close protection operative situations

o taking evasive actions in case of attack

o preferences of the principal

 Know the search techniques and procedures for close protection operations

• Demonstrate search techniques

• The procedures for searching and the implications under UK legislation:

o systematic approach

o vehicles

• where to search

• search routes: order in which parts of vehicle should be searched, etc.

o premises

• types of search: electronic, visual, physical, canine, etc.

• how to search: outside to inside, bottom to top, etc.

o personal

• reasons for search

• gaining consent from person to be searched

• same-sex search

• safe searching procedure

• limit of search permitted: no strip searching or contact with intimate areas, etc.

• dealing with refusal to be searched

• The legal and access implications if someone refuses to be searched at a point of entry:

o potential assault if consent not obtained

o searching as part of entry requirements to private property

• The importance of post search security: vehicles

• use alarm system

• secure parking

• monitoring of searched vehicles: by personnel, CCTV, etc.

o premises

• security guards

• seal the room

• use alarm system

• use of CCTV systems

• subsequent searching of people / vehicles entering premises

• Technology and support available to assist in a search:

o canine search team

o electronic detection equipment: detection wands, arches, explosive / drug

detection machines, etc.

o scanning equipment: X-ray and similar equipment, etc.

o equipment: torch, mirrors, cameras, probes, etc.

• How to deal with unauthorised/dangerous objects and apply emergency procedures:

o types of objects that may be found:

• illegal substances

• surveillance devices

• explosives, including improvised explosive devices (IEDs)

• other hazardous substances: suspect powders, chemicals, etc.

o How to deal with objects found:

• reporting procedures

• seizure of unlawful items: weapons, drugs, stolen property, etc.

• seek assistance

• evacuate if appropriate

• detain suspect if a personal search

 Know how to apply conflict management techniques while providing close protection

• Demonstrate techniques used to avoid and defuse conflict situations

• Potential conflict situations that could arise in the close protection context:

o verbal conflict

o physical conflict

o types of situation: crowds, media attention, fans, entering / leaving premises,

protestors, etc.

• The different levels of threat in potential and actual conflict situations:

o escalation from frustration to anger, aggression and violence

o assessing the behaviour of people involved in situation

• Human responses to emotional and threatening situations:

o fight or flight/ freeze

o fear

o anger

o aggression

o rational v emotional; thought processes

o physical effects

• shock

• adrenaline

• Common triggers and inhibitors:

o triggers

• feeling threatened

• loss of face

• disrespect

• abuse or insult

o factors

• drink or drugs

• medical and mental health conditions

o inhibitors

• fear of prosecution / legal consequences

• fear of retaliation

• fear of consequences generally

• training

• self control

• The basic elements of communication:

o SMR (sender, message, receiver) model (including encoding & decoding)

o Importance of feedback loops / checking understanding

o barriers to communication

• physical: noise, distance, doors/windows, etc.

• attitudes

• emotional / psychological: ego, dislike, superiority, etc.

• language

• mental health issues affecting communication / understanding

• The importance of non-verbal communication in conflict situations:

o posture / stance

o position

o allowing personal space

o appropriate eye contact

o tone of voice

o non-aggressive body language: open palms rather than clenched fists, etc.

o importance of aligning body language with spoken messages

• The importance of adopting an appropriate initial response in a conflict situation:

o to prevent escalation of situation

o calm approach

o signalling non-aggression

o assertive (rather than aggressive or passive) approach

o appropriate use of communication: active listening, empathy, etc.

• The attitude/behaviour cycle and how to prevent escalation of conflict:

o attitude influences behaviour

o control own behaviour

o responsibility of close protection operative to break cycle by using nonaggressive and calming behaviour

• Ways of avoiding potential conflict situations whilst providing close protection:

o planned avoidance

o exit strategies

o contingency plans

o alternative routes, entries, exits, etc.

o evacuation procedures

o dynamic risk assessment

o avoiding confrontation if possible

o utilising safe havens, safe areas, etc.

• Techniques used to defuse potential conflict situations:

o non-verbal communication

o active listening skills

o positive attitude

o empathy

• How to manage anger and aggression in conflict situations:

o recognise signs

• non-verbal signals: stronger eye contact, closing of personal space, aggressive gestures, confrontational stance

• verbal signs: aggressive or abusive language, raised volume, change in tone of voice

o working with colleagues, including appropriate contact and cover positions and tactics

o handover to colleagues, including appropriate switch and handover tactics

• The effects of stress within a close protection environment:

o symptoms

• inability to make decisions

• inability to focus on detail

• insomnia

• loss of appetite

• changes in individual’s behaviour

• recognition that different people react to stress in different ways

• Techniques for dealing with conflict:

o win-win approach

o compromise

o finding common ground between parties

o build a rapport

Conflict Management Scenarios

Application of Communication Skills and Conflict Management

 If you require any further information about this or any of our other courses please feel free to contact us.

All Time Security and Training

11 Duke Street

High Wycombe


HP13 6EE

Tel 01494 511 222 

Web :   



High Wycombe | £1650 (including all fees!)
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